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The Weather affects the quality of fishing. In general, poor weather (cloud, rain etc.) tend to improve the probability of getting a bite. Temperature plays a part and barometric pressure can affect some fish .
Rain in warm weather seems to excite the fish, this may have something to do with cooling the water and increasing the oxygen levels in the water. It is also suspected the freshens up the water and allows the "smell" of the bait to stand out more. However in colder weather it appears to have the reverse effect.
it also has the side effect of hiding your presence.
One thing is for certain the temperature and hence the water temperature does change the feeding habits. Sudden increases in temperature can severely reduce the number of bite you get. in countries where the weather is warmer for longer periods see a settling down although a change of bait is often required.
It has been noticed that boilies made with less casein and more carbohydrate ( semolina) seems better in some areas. Smaller and / or softer baits have also been found to get better response.
Several of the older angling books and the Encyclopedia Britanica say that carp cannot be caught in water above 70f (21c) and rarely feed in water below 60f (16c). However Anglers have caught Carp while ice is on the water although they tend to be small. Most fish can be caught in the winter if you fish at the peak temperature times when the water warms slightly. The reverse is true in the summer.
The old idea of their not feeding above or below certain temps is probably from the times when they were not chased as avidly. It's probably reasonable to say that, under our conditions, at least some carp will feed on most days during winter. Their feeding periods are certainly shorter and less intense and the fish are far more selective in where and on what they'll feed but I doubt that they ever stop feeding completely for more than a day or so.
Apparently carp in Texas have a dormant period
in the winter that is the same as those carp farther north. Texas
has a mild climate yet the fish go into a quiet state just as if
there was freezing temperatures. Apparently this is a seasonal
behaviour probably based on the amount of sunlight. A good
research project for someone.
It is currently uncertain whether it it the pressure of the weather conditions associated wit the pressure that cause the changes, however as a general guide. Low pressure gives good fishing and high pressure bad
There has been some speculation regarding moon phases, over the last couple of years, some of the l saltwater fisher-folk have gone crazy over the use of solunar tables to calculate prime fishing times. These charts give a rating for various time periods each day. As far as we can tell, the calculations are based on a combination of moon phases and sun/moon rise/set times.
Carp-l members have been trying (so far without luck) to get hold of tables and compare them with SAFWAA match records for the same period. There's a couple of bits of software around that can do the solunar calculations but the ones I've found are only suited to North America.
There's plenty of evidence that moon times/phases are important with some saltwater species but I'm unsure as to what degree this would apply to freshwater, given that there is no tidal factor to consider.